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Can primers be used interchangeably?

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Generally, no.

The 97* and 209P (Premier) are interchangeable in Alliant powder shotshell data.

The 57* and the 209 (non-Premier) were both different from the 209P (Premier).

The 57* was smaller in diameter, and the 209 (non-Premier) was slightly hotter.

The new 209 STS primer is interchangeable with the 209P (Premier) primer in most recipes. It is always best to check with the powder manufacturer when you have a question about a specific recipe. The 209-4 is a primer specifically made for use in .410 shotshell loads although there are no current recipes listed by the powder manufacturers using it. The 209-4 should not be used in gauges other than the .410 due to its lower energy level.

In pistol cartridges, the 1-1/2 small pistol primer should not be used in the 357 Magnum, 357 SIG or the 40 S&W. The 5-1/2 small pistol primer is the proper selection for these rounds.
In rifle cartridges, the 6-1/2 small rifle primer should not be used in the 17 Remington, 222 Remington, 204 Ruger or the 223 Remington. The 7-1/2 BR is the proper small rifle primer for these rounds.

Warning: When primers are selected incorrectly, misfires, damage to your firearm, and/or personal injury may occur.

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